Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference.
Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall
include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds,
regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of
art, or through any other media of his choice.
exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with
it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain
restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are
respect of the rights or reputations of others;
the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of
public health or morals.
propaganda for war shall be prohibited by law.
advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to
discrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by law.
right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. No restrictions may be placed
on the exercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity with the
law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of
national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection
of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of
Everyone shall have the right to freedom of association with others, including
the right to form and join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those which
are prescribed by law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the
interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public),
the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and
freedoms of others. This article shall not prevent the imposition of lawful
restrictions on members of the armed forces and of the police in their exercise
of this right.
Nothing in this article shall authorize States Parties to the International
Labour Organisation Convention of 1948 concerning Freedom of Association and
Protection of the Right to Organize to take legislative measures which would
prejudice, or to apply the law in such a manner as to prejudice, the guarantees
provided for in that Convention.
family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to
protection by society and the State.
right of men and women of marriageable age to marry and to found a family shall
marriage shall be entered into without the free and full consent of the
States Parties to the present Covenant shall take appropriate steps to ensure
equality of rights and responsibilities of spouses as to marriage, during
marriage and at its dissolution. In the case of dissolution, provision shall be
made for the necessary protection of any children.
Every child shall have, without any discrimination as to race, colour, sex,
language, religion, national or social origin, property or birth, the right to
such measures of protection as are required by his status as a minor, on the
part of his family, society and the State.
Every child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have a name.
Every child has the right to acquire a nationality.
citizen shall have the right and the opportunity, without any of the
distinctions mentioned in article 2 and without unreasonable restrictions:
take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly or through freely chosen
vote and to be elected at genuine periodic elections which shall be by
universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot, guaranteeing
the free expression of the will of the electors;
have access, on general terms of equality, to public service in his country.
persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to
the equal protection of the law. In this respect, the law shall prohibit any
discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection
against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language,
religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property,
birth or other status.
In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic
minorities exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the
right, in community with the other members of their group, to enjoy their own
culture, to profess and practise their own religion, or to use their own language.
There shall be established a Human Rights Committee (hereafter referred to in
the present Covenant as the Committee). It shall consist of eighteen members
and shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided.
Committee shall be composed of nationals of the States Parties to the present
Covenant who shall be persons of high moral character and recognized competence
in the field of human rights, consideration being given to the usefulness of
the participation of some persons having legal experience.
members of the Committee shall be elected and shall serve in their personal
members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of
persons possessing the qualifications prescribed in article 28 and nominated
for the purpose by the States Parties to the present Covenant.
State Party to the present Covenant may nominate not more than two persons.
These persons shall be nationals of the nominating State.
person shall be eligible for renomination.
initial election shall be held no later than six months after the date of the
entry into force of the present Covenant.
least four months before the date of each election to the Committee, other than
an election to fill a vacancy declared in accordance with article 34, the
Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a written invitation to
the States Parties to the present Covenant to submit their nominations for membership
of the Committee within three months.
Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare a list in alphabetical
order of all the persons thus nominated, with an indication of the States
Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties to
the present Covenant no later than one month before the date of each election.
Elections of the members of the Committee shall be held at a meeting of the
States Parties to the present Covenant convened by the Secretary General of the
United Nations at the Headquarters of the United Nations. At that meeting, for
which two thirds of the States Parties to the present Covenant shall constitute
a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those nominees who
obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the
representatives of States Parties present and voting.