shall be imprisoned merely on the ground of inability to fulfil a contractual
Everyone lawfully within the territory of a State shall, within that territory,
have the right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence.
Everyone shall be free to leave any country, including his own.
above-mentioned rights shall not be subject to any restrictions except those
which are provided by law, are necessary to protect national security, public
order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of
others, and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present
one shall be arbitrarily deprived of the right to enter his own country.
alien lawfully in the territory of a State Party to the present Covenant may be
expelled therefrom only in pursuance of a decision reached in accordance with
law and shall, except where compelling reasons of national security otherwise
require, be allowed to submit the reasons against his expulsion and to have his
case reviewed by, and be represented for the purpose before, the competent
authority or a person or persons especially designated by the competent
persons shall be equal before the courts and tribunals. In the determination of
any criminal charge against him, or of his rights and obligations in a suit at
law, everyone shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent,
independent and impartial tribunal established by law. The press and the public
may be excluded from all or part of a trial for reasons of morals, public order
(ordre public) or national security in a democratic society, or when the
interest of the private lives of the parties so requires, or to the extent
strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where
publicity would prejudice the interests of justice; but any judgement rendered
in a criminal case or in a suit at law shall be made public except where the
interest of juvenile persons otherwise requires or the proceedings concern
matrimonial disputes or the guardianship of children.
Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have the right to be presumed
innocent until proved guilty according to law.
the determination of any criminal charge against him, everyone shall be
entitled to the following minimum guarantees, in full equality: (a) To be
informed promptly and in detail in a language which he understands of the
nature and cause of the charge against him;
have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence and to
communicate with counsel of his own choosing;
be tried without undue delay;
be tried in his presence, and to defend himself in person or through legal
assistance of his own choosing; to be informed, if he does not have legal
assistance, of this right; and to have legal assistance assigned to him, in any
case where the interests of justice so require, and without payment by him in
any such case if he does not have sufficient means to pay for it;
examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him and to obtain the
attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions
as witnesses against him;
have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the
language used in court;
to be compelled to testify against himself or to confess guilt.
the case of juvenile persons, the procedure shall be such as will take account
of their age and the desirability of promoting their rehabilitation.
Everyone convicted of a crime shall have the right to his conviction and
sentence being reviewed by a higher tribunal according to law.
a person has by a final decision been convicted of a criminal offence and when
subsequently his conviction has been reversed or he has been pardoned on the
ground that a new or newly discovered fact shows conclusively that there has
been a miscarriage of justice, the person who has suffered punishment as a
result of such conviction shall be compensated according to law, unless it is
proved that the non-disclosure of the unknown fact in time is wholly or partly
attributable to him.
one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offence for which he
has already been finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with the law and
penal procedure of each country.
1 . No
one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or
omission which did not constitute a criminal offence, under national or
international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier
penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time when the
criminal offence was committed. If, subsequent to the commission of the
offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of the lighter penalty,
the offender shall benefit thereby.
Nothing in this article shall prejudice the trial and punishment of any person
for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal
according to the general principles of law recognized by the community of
shall have the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy,
family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and
Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference
Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
This right shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of
his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and in
public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, observance,
practice and teaching.
one shall be subject to coercion which would impair his freedom to have or to
adopt a religion or belief of his choice.
Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such
limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public
safety, order, health, or morals or the fundamental rights and freedoms of
States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to have respect for the
liberty of parents and, when applicable, legal guardians to ensure the
religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their own