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General Principles-Part 3

  1/10/2013
3-The Rights of the People


Article 19
All people of Iran, whatever the ethnic group or tribe to which they belong, enjoy equal rights; and color, race, language, and the like, do not bestow any privilege.
Article 20
All citizens of the country, both men and women, equally enjoy the protection of the law and enjoy all human, political, economic, social, and cultural rights, in conformity with Islamic criteria.
Article 21
The government must ensure the rights of women in all respects, in conformity with Islamic criteria, and accomplish the following goals:
    1.create a favorable environment for the growth of woman's personality and the restoration of her rights, both the material and intellectual;
    2.the protection of mothers, particularly during pregnancy and childbearing, and the protection of children without guardians;
    3.establishing competent courts to protect and preserve the family;
    4.the provision of special insurance for widows, and aged women and women without support;
    5.the awarding of guardianship of children to worthy mothers, in order to protect the interests of the children, in the absence of a legal guardian.
Article 22
The dignity, life, property, rights, residence, and occupation of the individual are inviolate, except in cases sanctioned by law. 
 
Article 23
The investigation of individuals' beliefs is forbidden, and no one may be molested or taken to task simply for holding a certain belief. 
 
Article 24
Publications and the press have freedom of expression except when it is detrimental to the fundamental principles of Islam or the rights of the public. The details of this exception will be specified by law. 
 
Article 25
The inspection of letters and the failure to deliver them, the recording and disclosure of telephone conversations, the disclosure of telegraphic and telex communications, censorship, or the willful failure to transmit them, eavesdropping, and all forms of covert investigation are forbidden, except as provided by law. 
 
Article 26
The formation of parties, societies, political or professional associations, as well as religious societies, whether Islamic or pertaining to one of the recognized religious minorities, is permitted provided they do not violate the principles of independence, freedom, national unity, the criteria of Islam, or the basis of the Islamic republic. No one may be prevented from participating in the aforementioned groups, or be compelled to participate in them. 
 
Article 27
Public gatherings and marches may be freely held, provided arms are not carried and that they are not detrimental to the fundamental principles of Islam. 
 
Article 28
Everyone has the right to choose any occupation he wishes, if it is not contrary to Islam and the public interests, and does not infringe the rights of others. The government has the duty, with due consideration of the need of society for different kinds of work, to provide every citizen with the opportunity to work, and to create equal conditions for obtaining it. 
  
 
Article 29
To benefit from social security with respect to retirement, unemployment, old age, disability, absence of a guardian, and benefits relating to being stranded, accidents, health services, and medical care and treatment, provided through Insurance or other means, is accepted as a universal right. The government must provide the foregoing services and financial support for every individual citizen by drawing, in accordance with the law, on the national revenues and funds obtained through public contributions.
 
Article 30
The government must provide all citizens with free-education up to secondary school, and must expand free higher education to the extent required by the country for attaining self-sufficiency. 
 
Article 31
It is the right of every Iranian individual and family to possess housing commensurate with his nods. The government must maker land available for the implementation of this article, according priority to those whose need is greatest, in particular the rural population and the workers. 
 
Article 33
No one can be banished from his place of residence, prevented from residing in the place of his choice, or compelled to reside in a given locality, except in cases provided by law. 
 
Article 34
It is the indisputable right of every citizen to seek justice by recourse to competent courts. All citizens have right of access to such courts, and no one can be barred from courts to which he has a legal right of recourse. 
 
Article 35
Both parties to a lawsuit have the right in all courts of law to select an attorney, and if they are unable to do so, arrangements must be made to provide them with legal counsel. 
 
Article 36
The passing and execution of a sentence must be only by a competent court and in accordance with law. 
 
Article 37
Innocence is to be presumed, and no one is to be held guilty of a charge unless his or her guilt has been established by a competent court. 
 
Article 38
All forms of torture for the purpose of extracting confession or acquiring information are forbidden. Compulsion of individuals to testify, confess, or take an oath is not permissible; and any testimony, confession, or oath obtained under duress is devoid of value and credence. Violation of this article is liable to punishment in accordance with the law. 
 
Article 39
All affronts to the dignity and repute of persons arrested, detained, imprisoned, or banished in accordance with the law, whatever form they may take, are forbidden and liable to punishment. 
 
Article 40
No one is entitled to exercise his rights in a way injurious to others or detrimental to public interests. 
  
 
Article 41
Iranian citizenship is the indisputable right of every Iranian, and the government cannot withdraw citizenship from any Iranian unless he himself requests it or acquires the citizenship of another country. 
 
Article 42
Foreign nationals may acquire Iranian citizenship within the framework of the laws.  Citizenship may be withdrawn from such persons if another State accepts them as its citizens or if they request it.





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